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Banana

Banana ( MusaSps.)

Banana is a globally important fruit crop with 97.5 million tons of production.They grow in some 120 countries,especially in the equatorial belt of Africa stretching from East to west where they are the major staple food.Bananas are reported by TAC as being the fourth most important global food commodity after rice, wheat and milk, in terms of the gross value of production.

Banana are also attractive to small farmers in developing countries. Their perennial nature reduces production costs and are a vital source of income for farmers because of the demand for them as low cost but very vital components of poor peoples diets. As a result, banana consumption in developing countries steadily increasing.

Tissue Culture Technology

Suckers generally infected with some pathogens and nematodes. Similarly, the crop is not uniform due to the variation in age and size of sucker.Harvesting is also prolonged and management becomes difficult. Therefore, invitroclonal propagation i.e. Tissue culture technique is recommended for propagation to get healthy, disease free, uniform and authentic plantlets.

  • The inherent benefits of the system can be successfully employed to fully exploit the economic potential of source of donor or mother plant material which are selected from a areas that have recorded disease free cropping several years. From such source, healthy, vigorous, high yielding donor plants of the desired banana cultivars are identified in the clonal selection process.
  • High yielding progenies of true-to type, uniform elite clones of different varieties available in large quantities in tissue culture process.
  • Tissue culture banana plantlets are disease free at the time of planting and the same conditions can be maintained by proper crop management.
  • Tissue culture vigor in the plantlets manifests better growth and performance in the field.
  • Availability of tissue culture plantlets are not constrained by seasonal variation.
  • Uniform maturity for the harvest of the fruits.
  • Market oriented planting of Tissue culture Banana plants gives better price.
  • Three crops (1main crop and 2 ratoon crops) in 24 months duration.
Availability Of Tissue Culture Plantlets

Banana Can Be Grown Throughout The Year, If Perennial Water Supply Is Available For Irrigation. The Tissue Culture Banana Plants Available In The Following Sizes.

A) Primary Nursery Plantlets : The tissue culture banana plantlets available in netpots to an approximate height of 12 cm., with three to four leaves from tissue culture laboratories. The plantlets will be packed in open cartons or closed boxes and transported in pick-up-vans or trucks. These plantlets are to be grown in secondary nursery for 8-12 weeks prior to planting in the main field.

B) Secondary Nusery Plantlets : The tissue culture banana plantlets also available in poly bags to an height of 30 to 40 cm with 6 - 8 leaves from the commercial laboratories’ secondary nursery. These plants are ready for field planting.

Grading : Plants must be graded based on their height ( up to fork in terminal leaf) and girth prior to planting in the main field.

Transplanation To The Main Field : Only after eight to twelve weeks growth in the secondary nursery, the plants can be transplanted to the main field. There is no need to cut back the pseudostem for tissue culture banana in polybags.

Soil : Banana is grown successfully on a wide range of soils. The two soil factors namely depth and drainage are important for banana cultivation. Therefore, banana grown well in a deep and friable loam soil with good drainage and aeration. The crop is sensitive to water logging and can tolerate a wide range of soil PH (5.50 – 7.50)

Climate :Banana is a crop of humid tropics, but well suited for cultivation from humid subtropical to semi arid subtropics and from sea level up to an elevation of 200m. In India, it is successfully grown with a temperature range form 10 - 45oC and a rainfall of 500 mm-2000mm per year.

Land Preparation :Prepare the land by ploughing and harrowing and bring soil to a fine tilt. Dig the pits size to 2ft x 2ft. Fill the pits with equal quantities of top soil: well decomposed FYM/compost/cattle manure.

Spacing :The normal spacing for Dwarf Cavendish is 5’ x 6’, Grand Naine and Robusta is 6’ x 6’.

Planting : The plant can be plantedin the center of the filled pit without disturbing the roots.

Irrigation:Provide irrigation immediately after planting and give subsequent irrigations once in 3-4 days depending upon the soil and weather conditions. Water may be fed always from main channel to basins (1.5 ft radius) made around each plant. Avoid connecting one basin with another during irrigation as a general precaution.Drip irrigation is proved to be suitable for tissue culture banana for saving the water and increasing the productivity. The water quantity varies from 5 liters to 30 liters per plant per day depending upon the age of the plant and season.

Fertilizers :Fertilizers can be applied as a band 8 inches away from the base and incorporated into the soil. The dosage of nutrients depends upon the soil and type of fertilizers used. However each banana plant requires 200 gms. Nitrogen (N), 100 gms. Phosphorous (P) and 210 gms. Potassium (K) for its life cycle.

Plant Protection :Tissue culture plants are disease free at the time of supply. with good management, a pest free crop can be raised.

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